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The Colombian Peace Agreement

The opportunity to build peace

After nearly 50 years of conflict, the Colombian government has signed a historic peace agreement with the country’s largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP).


The peace process was divided in three phases:

1st Phase: Exploratory talks

Confidential phase where both parties exchanged
views and set up the conditions for the peace talks.

July 2011
Both parties (Colombian government & FARC - EP) agreed to do exploratory meetings in Havana, Cuba.

August 2012
The FARC and the Colombian government signed the “General Agreement to end the Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace”, laying down the framework for the peace talks.

2nd Phase: Ending Conflict

Peace talks between the Colombian Government and FARC-EP kicked off in Oslo, Norway before permanently moving to Havana, Cuba (for four years).

November 2012
Upon arriving in Havana, the FARC announced a unilateral temporary cease- fire as a way to earn the confidence of the Colombian government and civilians.

September 2015
Santos and FARC leader "Timochenko," met in Havana to sign an agreement on transitional justice, outlining forthcoming judicial procedures for human rights abuses committed by both sides. The agreement also declared the peace process to be “irreversible.”

January 2016
A trilateral mechanism for the verification and monitoring of a final cease- fire,cessationofhostilitiesandsurrenderofweaponswasannounced.The mechanism involved the Colombian government, the FARC and a political mission of the U.N.

June 2016 
Both parties announced an agreement that included a bilateral cease-fire, cessation of hostilities and surrender of FARC weapons during a ceremony in Havana. The agreement established the protocol for FARC militants to deliver their weapons to the U.N. mission and prepare for “reincorporation” into civilian life.

September 2016 
The government and Farc sign a historic peace accord that formally brings to an end 52 years of armed conflict.

October 2016 
Colombians voted 'No'
to the peace agreement
in a narrowly won referendum

November 2016
The government and Farc sign a modified version of the peace deal after the earlier agreement was rejected in the popular referendum.

3rd Phase: Building Peace

This is a phase expected to last 10 years

March 2017
The FARC started a process of disarmament.

June 2017
TheFARCdeliver100percentoftheirweaponry, officially ceasing to exist as a rebel group and
transitioning to civil and political life.


How many people have been affected by the conflict in Colombia?

The National Victims Unit, which was set up in 2011 and records crimes which have occurred since 1985 in the context of the armed conflict, registered almost 280,000 killings (the majority of them civilians), more than 46,500 people forcibly disappeared and over seven million people forced to flee their homes by 1 November 2016.

What are the chapters of the agreement?


Comprehensive rural development

1. This chapter seeks to ensure the health and wellbeing of the rural population.


Political Participation

This chapter seeks to foster more diverse voices in politics and increase citizens’ participation in public affairs.


End of Conflict

This chapter seeks to guarantee security conditions for everyone and aid FARC members’ transition to civilian life.


Solution to the problem of illicit drugs 

This chapter seeks to fight against the entire chain of drug trafficking.



This chapter seeks to satisfy the rights of victims of the conflict: Truth / Justice / Non- repetition.


 Implementation and verification

This chapter seeks that the Peace Agreement is implemented.


BBVA, n.d. https://www.bbva.com/en/timeline-colombian-peace-process/ Cafod, 2019. https://cafod.org.uk/News/International-news/Colombia-Peace- Process-Q-A

The Office of the High Commissioner for Peace. The Colombian Peace Agreement. WOLA, 2019. https://www.wola.org/program/colombia/the-colombian-peace- process/ BBC, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19390164

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Date Published

October 6, 2019
12:17 pm Sunday, Tokyo (GMT+9)


Colombia, peace process, FARC, conflict

About the author
Andrea Luna 
She holds a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Los Andes (Colombia) with additional studies in social psychology and postgraduate degree in State, Public Policy and Development from the same University. She has experience in the defense of human rights and in formulation of actions of development, specifically in issues related to the right of education, the rights of people with disabilities, the rights of children and gender equality. In Colombia, Andrea joined different government entities such as the Colombian Family Welfare Institute, where she worked for the prevention and protection of infancy, childhood, adolescence and well being of families in Colombia.


International Christian University
3 Chome-3-10−2 Ōsawa, Mitaka-shi, Tōkyō-to 181-8585


Email: adpacem.icu@gmail.com